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Time-of-Flight Technology

Building A Real-Time 3D Depth Data Environment

Watch videos on 3D ToF


The world we live in is a three-dimensional space. The eye, the most important perception organ of human beings, can not only provide colorful color information for human beings, but also form a sense of distance in the brain, so that we can perceive a three-dimensional world. Since the birth of the first CCD image sensor in Bell Laboratories, in the past few decades, machine vision and digital imaging technology have made great progress, giving tremendous energy to all walks of life. People's lives, industrial automation, aerospace and other fields have begun to be widely linked with image and visual technology.

The field of machine vision has experienced the evolution process from analog to digital, from static to dynamic, and from monochrome to color. The current 3D vision technology is to improve the dimension of machine vision by presenting stereo images in front of people, which can meet the application scenarios that are difficult to achieve in the past 2D vision, such as Face ID, mobile phone, VR/AR, industrial vision and other directions, and start a new visual revolution in all walks of life!

As shown in the above figure, unlike the image taken by the left traditional color camera, the image displayed by the right stereo vision technology is composed of the distance from each pixel to the camera. In order to better present the difference in distance, different distance values are usually mapped to the color gamut space, so that users can more easily understand the meaning of depth images, as shown in the following figure:

The purpose and development direction of 3D vision technology is to obtain more accurate, more delicate and faster depth images through various methods.

Taxonomy and Principles of Distance Measurement

The reflective optical methods of figure above are typically classified into passive and active. Passive range sensing refers to 3D distance measurement by way of radiation (typically, but not necessarily, in the visible spectrum) already present in the scene, and stereo-vision systems are a classical example of this family of methods; active sensing refers, instead, to 3D distance measurement obtained by projecting in the scene some form of radiation as made, for instance, by ToF cameras and by light coding systems[2].

A stereo vision system is made by two standard (typically identical) cameras partially framing the same scene. Such a system can always be calibrated and rectified. It then becomes equivalent to a stereo vision system made by two (identical) standard cameras with coplanar and aligned imaging sensors and parallel optical axis. The theory behind them, known as epipolar geometry, can be found in classical computer vision books such as [3, 4]. For the case of a scene without geometric or color features, such as a straight wall of uniform color, the stereo images of such a scene will be uniform, and since no corresponding pixels can be obtained from them, no depth information about the scene can be obtained by triangulation. 

A stereo vision system where one of the two cameras is replaced by a projector, is called active or light coding system, or structure light system. It projects light with a shape through a laser projector. The shape changes on the object, and then calculates the distance. The effectiveness of active systems with respect to the correspondence problem can be easily appreciated in the previously considered example of a straight wall of uniform color. Light coding systems can therefore provide depth information also in case of scenes without geometry and color features where standard stereo systems fail to give any depth data. In general, active techniques are recognized to be more expensive and slower than passive methods but way more accurate and robust than them. In order to measure distances of dynamic scenes, i.e., scenes with moving objects, subsequent light coding methods focused on reducing the number of projected patterns to few units or to a single pattern.

We focus on the ToF (Time of Flight) technology, which is translated as time of flight technology. In a broad sense, all methods of measuring medium time of flight belong to the ToF technology. When ToF measurement is carried out with light as the medium, the principle is that the light source of the ToF module sends photons to the object to be measured. After arriving at the object to be measured and receiving the photons reflected back to the ToF module through the image sensor, the "flight time of light" of this section is measured, and the distance data can be obtained on the premise that the speed of light is known.

The simplest single pixel ToF technology uses a modulated collimating laser as the transmitter and a single optoelectronic diode as the receiver, which can be used to provide the distance information of a single point. If you want to use a single pixel distance sensor to provide the depth map of the entire scene, it will generally use some scanning form. The following figure shows the principle of single pixel ToF ranging technology.

3D ToF technology provides a complete scene depth map through one-time imaging, without scanning devices. With the shrinking size of semiconductor components, the compact, cost-effective ToF depth camera has been rapidly applied and developed in the industrial and consumer electronics fields.

Components of a ToF Camera

The ToF camera refers to the area array non scanning 3D imaging depth information capture technology with the optical system as the receiving path. From the following figure, we can understand that the ToF depth camera is composed of an irradiation unit, an optical lens, an imaging sensor, a control unit, and a computing unit.

- Irradiation unit

The irradiation unit needs to pulse modulate the light source before transmitting, and the modulated light pulse frequency can be as high as 100MHz. Therefore, in the process of image shooting, the light source will be turned on and off thousands of times, and each light pulse only lasts for a few nanoseconds. The exposure time parameter of the camera determines the number of pulses for each imaging.

In order to achieve accurate measurement, it is necessary to precisely control the light pulse so that it has the same duration, rise time and fall time. Because even a small deviation of 1ns can produce a distance measurement error of up to 15 cm. Such high modulation frequency and accuracy can only be achieved by using sophisticated LED or laser diode.

Generally, the infrared light source that is invisible to the human eye is used.

- Optical lens

It is used to gather reflected light and image on the optical sensor. Unlike ordinary optical lenses, a band-pass filter is required to ensure that only light with the same wavelength as the illumination light source can enter. The purpose of this is to suppress the incoherent light source to reduce noise, and prevent the overexposure of the light sensor due to the interference of external light.

- Imaging sensor

The imaging sensor is the core of TOF camera. The structure of this sensor is similar to that of an ordinary image sensor, but more complex than that of an image sensor. It contains two or more shutters to sample reflected light at different times. Therefore, the pixel size of TOF chip is much larger than that of ordinary image sensors, generally about 100um.

- Control unit

The light pulse sequence triggered by the electronic control unit of the camera is precisely synchronized with the opening/closing of the electronic shutter of the chip. It reads and converts sensor charges and directs them to the analysis unit and data interface.

- Calculation unit

The calculation unit can record accurate depth map. The depth map is usually a grayscale image, where each value represents the distance between the light reflecting surface and the camera. For better results, data calibration is usually performed.

Direct ToF vs Indirect ToF

ToF 3D camera technology can be divided into iToF (indirect ToF) and dToF (direct ToF) according to the specific implementation method. IToF is further divided into Continuous Waveform ToF and Pulse Based ToF, as shown in the figure below:


Indirect ToF(iToF)
Traditional iToF
  • cw drive mode

  • 2 or 4 taps per pixels

  • Accuracy is same across whole measurement distance

  • Distance calculation based on phase shift Higher modulation increaseaccuracy but lower max. ranging distance

Pulse ToF
  • Pulse drive mode(3~33ns)

  • Higher power consumption

  • Higher error rate in very close and very far object

  • Max. ranging distance increase with pulse width

Direct ToF(dToF)
  • Ultrashort pulse (0.2~5ns)

  • Require SPAD sensor,TDC and high frequency clock

  • Accuracy is same across whole measurement distance

  • Multiple object detection

  • lnvulnerable to multipath

  • Food illuminator

  • Real depth point matches with actual pixel

  • Dot illuminator

  • Real depth point matches with dot number

  • High SNR to achieve longer ranging distance


DToF (direct time of flight), which is a direct time of flight ranging method, directly measures the time difference between the time tstart when the laser pulse is sent from the transmitting end and the time tstop when the laser pulse returns to the receiving end after being reflected by an object by means of an internal timer. In combination with the speed of light c, the distance depth data d is obtained. Compared with the method mentioned below, which indirectly measures the time difference between the transmitting signal and the receiving signal through the signal phase difference, This method of measuring time difference is more direct, so it is called direct time of flight ranging method.

The principle of direct time-of-flight ranging is direct and simple, but the technical level has high requirements for the light source at the transmitter, the image sensor at the receiver, and the circuits related to synchronization and time detection. For example, there are certain requirements for the transmitter to generate such short pulses, and the image sensor at the receiver also needs to use highly sensitive optical detection technology to detect weak optical signals, such as single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) technology.


The basic principle of CW iToF is to adjust the light into a sine wave with a fixed frequency f, and the transmitting end transmits the sine wave according to the frequency f. When collecting the returned optical energy, CW iToF will open multiple windows, sample the data collected by multiple windows, analyze the phase difference information between the transmitting and receiving within a period, and then obtain the distance information through the following formula.

>>> Click to view CW ToF products

The vast majority of continuous waveform ToF systems use CMOS sensors, especially the back illuminated CMOS process technology, which greatly improves the light-sensitive area, photon collection rate and ranging speed, and the response time can reach the level of ns; To realize phase unwrapping, CW ToF will apply multiple modulation frequencies - this method will be very helpful to reduce multipath errors; CW iToF is a full CMOS imaging system, which has better flexibility and faster readout speed. However, CW iToF method also has some disadvantages. Its image sensor requires four samples of correlation function at multiple modulation frequencies, plus multiple frame processing, so the complexity of signal processing will become higher, which may require additional application processors; For longer distance measurement, or when the ambient light in the scene is strong, the continuous output power requirements are high, which will affect the heating and stability.

Pulse ToF

The following figure is a schematic diagram of the principle of Pulse iTOF. By adjusting the light into a square wave with a fixed frequency f, the transmitting end transmits pulse signals according to the frequency f. The sensor at the receiving end consists of two electronic shutters (s1, s2). The frequency and phase of the S1 window are consistent with the transmitting pulse. When the S1 and S2 windows are opened (high electrical level), they accumulate photons reflected from the object within their respective time. By calculating the different energy value proportions of s1 and s2, The signal phase is analyzed to calculate the time difference between the transmitted signal and the received signal, and then the distance data is obtained.

Compared with CW iToF continuous wave debugging mode, Pulse iToF has simpler solution depth, lower computational load, and lower requirements for back-end processing capacity of the platform. From the principle of Pulse iTOF, Pulse iTOF emits high-intensity light pulses in a short time window, which can reduce the impact of background light signals, make it more adaptive to changes in ambient light, and better resist problems such as scene motion blur. 

>>> Click to view pulse ToF products

Different Technology Comparison


Speckle Structured Light

Striped Structured Light


High at near place

High at near place


Linear with distance

Fixed errorSub-millimeter



NearNearNearMedium nearMedium far

Medium far

Frame rateHighMediumLowHighMediumMedium




The advantages of ToF technology are shown in multiple dimensions, including detection range, angle, frame rate, light resistance, cost performance, etc; The ToF technology has great advantages in scenes where the accuracy is required to be above the mm level.


Visual Positioning and Guidance


Visual Control for Delta Robot Visual Control for Delta Robot

Smart Agriculture Smart Agriculture

Dimension Measurement Dimension Measurement

Palletizing and Depalletizing Palletizing and Depalletizing

Gesture Capture and Behavior Recognition

Interaction Interaction

Fall Detection Fall Detection

Automated Fare Collection Automated Fare Collection

People Counting People Counting


Application Collection

Performance Demonstration

Vzense 3D-ToF-based RGB-D DS77C and DCAM560C is integrated into RobotPhoenix scara robot

Vzense 3D-ToF-based RGB-D DS77C and DCAM560C is integrated into RobotPhoenix scara robot

Vzense 3D Time-of-Flight RGB-D camera for depalletizing application

Vzense 3D Time-of-Flight RGB-D camera for depalletizing application

Vzense New Model DS77 Demo(based on Sony IMX570 ToF sensor)

Vzense New Model DS77 Demo(based on Sony IMX570 ToF sensor)

People Counting Solution using 3D ToF technology

2023-01-14 People Counting Solution using 3D ToF technology

Vzense 3D-ToF-camera-based privacy protected queue management system

2023-01-14 Vzense 3D-ToF-camera-based privacy protected queue management system

Eye tracking for DMS with Vzense 3D ToF camera and Eyeware's GazeSense™ software

2023-01-14 Eye tracking for DMS with Vzense 3D ToF camera and Eyeware's GazeSense™ software

Volume Calculation with Vzense 3D ToF(Time of Flight) Camera DS77 Featuring Sony ToF Sensor

2023-01-14 Volume Calculation with Vzense 3D ToF(Time of Flight) Camera DS77 Featuring Sony ToF Sensor

Black Pallet Recognition

Black Pallet Recognition

Black Pallet Recognition

Black Pallet Recognition

Black Pallet Recognition

Black Pallet Recognition

Vzense 3D ToF Camera Light Resistance Test

2022-12-08 Vzense 3D ToF Camera Light Resistance Test

Vzense 3D ToF Camera - Moving Objects Effect

2022-12-23 Vzense 3D ToF Camera - Moving Objects Effect

Vzense 3D ToF Camera Field of View (FoV)

2022-12-23 Vzense 3D ToF Camera Field of View (FoV)

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